Quick question – we have Cloud Foundry in private beta now, is there anyone in the Ubuntu community who would like to use a Cloud Foundry instance if we were to operate that for Ubuntu members?
Archive for the 'ubuntu' Category
This is a series of posts on reasons to choose Ubuntu for your public or private cloud work & play. When you see Ubuntu on a cloud it means that Canonical has a working relationship with that cloud vendor, and the Ubuntu images there come with a set of guarantees:
- Those images are up to date and secure.
- They have also been optimised on that cloud, both for performance and cost.
- The images provide a standard experience for app compatibility.
That turns out to be a lot of work for us to achieve, but it makes your life really easy.
Fresh, secure and tasty images
We update the cloud images across all clouds on a regular basis. Updating the image means that you have more of the latest updates pre-installed so launching a new machine is much faster – fewer updates to install on boot for a fully secured and patched machine.
- At least every two weeks, typically, if there are just a few small updates across the board to roll into the freshest image.
- Immediately if there is a significant security issue, so starting a fresh image guarantees you to have no known security gotchas.
- Sooner than usual if there are a lot of updates which would make launching and updating a machine slow.
Updates might include fixes to the kernel, or any of the packages we install by default in the “core” cloud images. We also make sure that these updated images are used by default in any “quick launch” UI that the cloud provides, so you don’t have to go hunt for the right image identity. And there are automated tools that will tell you the ID for the current image of Ubuntu on your cloud of choice. So you can script “give me a fresh Ubuntu machine” for any cloud, trivially. It’s all very nice.
Optimised for your pocket and your workload
Every cloud behaves differently – both in terms of their architecture, and their economics. When we engage with the cloud operator we figure out how to ensure that Ubuntu is “optimal” on that cloud. Usually that means we figure out things like storage mechanisms (the classic example is S3 but we have to look at each cloud to see what they provide and how to take advantage of it) and ensure that data-heavy operations like system updates draw on those resources in the most cost-efficient manner. This way we try to ensure that using Ubuntu is a guarantee of the most cost-effective base OS experience on any given cloud. In the case of more sophisticated clouds, we are digging in to kernel parameters and drivers to ensure that performance is first class. On Azure there is a LOT of deep engineering between Canonical and Microsoft to ensure that Ubuntu gets the best possible performance out of the Hyper-V substrate, and we are similarly engaged with other cloud operators and solution providers that use highly-specialised hypervisors, such as Joyent and VMware. Even the network can be tweaked for efficiency in a particular cloud environment once we know exactly how that cloud works under the covers. And we do that tweaking in the standard images so EVERYBODY benefits and you can take it for granted – if you’re using Ubuntu, it’s optimal. The results of this work can be pretty astonishing. In the case of one cloud we reduced the Ubuntu startup time by 23x from what their team had done internally; not that they were ineffective, it’s just that we see things through the eyes of a large-scale cloud user and care about things that a single developer might not care about as much. When you’re doing something at scale, even small efficiencies add up to big numbers.
Before we had this program in place, every cloud vendor hacked their own Ubuntu images, and they were all slightly different in unpredictable ways. We all have our own favourite way of doing things, so if every cloud has a lead engineer who rigged the default Ubuntu the way they like it, end users have to figure out the differences the hard way, stubbing their toes on them. In some cases they had default user accounts with different behaviour, in others they had different default packages installed. EMACS, Vi, nginx, the usual tweaks. In a couple of cases there were problems with updates or security, and we realised that Ubuntu users would be much better off if we took responsibility for this and ensured that the name is an assurance of standard behaviour and quality across all clouds. So now we have that, and if you see Ubuntu on a public cloud you can be sure it’s done to that standard, and we’re responsible. If it isn’t, please let us know and we’ll fix it for you. That means that you can try out a new cloud really easily – your stuff should work exactly the same way with those images, and differences between the clouds will have been considered and abstracted in the base OS. We’ll have tweaked the network, kernel, storage, update mechanisms and a host of other details so that you don’t have to, we’ll have installed appropriate tools for that specific cloud, and we’ll have lined things up so that to the best of our ability none of those changes will break your apps, or updates. If you haven’t recently tried a new cloud, go ahead and kick the tires on the base Ubuntu images in two or three of them. They should all Just Work TM. It’s frankly a lot of fun for us to work with the cloud operators – this is the frontline of large-scale systems engineering, and the guys driving architecture at public cloud providers are innovating like crazy but doing so in a highly competitive and operationally demanding environment. Our job in this case is to make sure that end-users don’t have to worry about how the base OS is tuned – it’s already tuned for them. We’re taking that to the next level in many cases by optimising workloads as well, in the form of Juju charms, so you can get whole clusters or scaled-out services that are tuned for each cloud as well. The goal is that you can create a cloud account and have complex scale-out infrastructure up and running in a few minutes. Devops, distilled.
This is a series of posts on reasons to choose Ubuntu for your public or private cloud work & play.
We run an extensive program to identify issues and features that make a difference to cloud users. One result of that program is that we pioneered dynamic image customisation and wrote cloud-init. I’ll tell the story of cloud-init as an illustration of the focus the Ubuntu team has on making your devops experience fantastic on any given cloud.
Ever struggled to find the “right” image to use on your favourite cloud? Ever wondered how you can tell if an image is safe to use, what keyloggers or other nasties might be installed? We set out to solve that problem a few years ago and the resulting code, cloud-init, is one of the more visible pieces Canonical designed and built, and very widely adopted.
Traditionally, people used image snapshots to build a portfolio of useful base images. You’d start with a bare OS, add some software and configuration, then snapshot the filesystem. You could use those snapshots to power up fresh images any time you need more machines “like this one”. And that process works pretty amazingly well. There are hundreds of thousands, perhaps millions, of such image snapshots scattered around the clouds today. It’s fantastic. Images for every possible occasion! It’s a disaster. Images with every possible type of problem.
The core issue is that an image is a giant binary blob that is virtually impossible to audit. Since it’s a snapshot of an image that was running, and to which anything might have been done, you will need to look in every nook and cranny to see if there is a potential problem. Can you afford to verify that every binary is unmodified? That every configuration file and every startup script is safe? No, you can’t. And for that reason, that whole catalogue of potential is a catalogue of potential risk. If you wanted to gather useful data sneakily, all you’d have to do is put up an image that advertises itself as being good for a particular purpose and convince people to run it.
There are other issues, even if you create the images yourself. Each image slowly gets out of date with regard to security updates. When you fire it up, you need to apply all the updates since the image was created, if you want a secure machine. Eventually, you’ll want to re-snapshot for a more up-to-date image. That requires administration overhead and coordination, most people don’t do it.
That’s why we created cloud-init. When your virtual machine boots, cloud-init is run very early. It looks out for some information you send to the cloud along with the instruction to start a new machine, and it customises your machine at boot time. When you combine cloud-init with the regular fresh Ubuntu images we publish (roughly every two weeks for regular updates, and whenever a security update is published), you have a very clean and elegant way to get fresh images that do whatever you want. You design your image as a script which customises the vanilla, base image. And then you use cloud-init to run that script against a pristine, known-good standard image of Ubuntu. Et voila! You now have purpose-designed images of your own on demand, always built on a fresh, secure, trusted base image.
Auditing your cloud infrastructure is now straightforward, because you have the DNA of that image in your script. This is devops thinking, turning repetitive manual processes (hacking and snapshotting) into code that can be shared and audited and improved. Your infrastructure DNA should live in a version control system that requires signed commits, so you know everything that has been done to get you where you are today. And all of that is enabled by cloud-init. And if you want to go one level deeper, check out Juju, which provides you with off-the-shelf scripts to customise and optimise that base image for hundreds of common workloads.
This upstirring undertaking Ubuntu is, as my colleague MPT explains, performance art. Not only must it be art, it must also perform, and that on a deadline. So many thanks and much credit to the teams and individuals who made our most recent release, the Trusty Tahr, into the gem of 14.04 LTS. And after the uproarious ululation and post-release respite, it’s time to open the floodgates to umpteen pent-up changes and begin shaping our next show.
The discipline of an LTS constrains our creativity – our users appreciate the results of a focused effort on performance and stability and maintainability, and we appreciate the spring cleaning that comes with a focus on technical debt. But the point of spring cleaning is to make room for fresh ideas and new art, and our next release has to raise the roof in that regard. And what a spectacular time to be unleashing creativity in Ubuntu. We have the foundations of convergence so beautifully demonstrated by our core apps teams – with examples that shine on phone and tablet and PC. And we have equally interesting innovation landed in the foundational LXC 1.0, the fastest, lightest virtual machines on the planet, born and raised on Ubuntu. With an LTS hot off the press, now is the time to refresh the foundations of the next generation of Linux: faster, smaller, better scaled and better maintained. We’re in a unique position to bring useful change to the ubiquitary Ubuntu developer, that hardy and precise pioneer of frontiers new and potent.
That future Ubuntu developer wants to deliver app updates instantly to users everywhere; we can make that possible. They want to deploy distributed brilliance instantly on all the clouds and all the hardware. We’ll make that possible. They want PAAS and SAAS and an Internet of Things that Don’t Bite, let’s make that possible. If free software is to fulfil its true promise it needs to be useful for people putting precious parts into production, and we’ll stand by our commitment that Ubuntu be the most useful platform for free software developers who carry the responsibilities of Dev and Ops.
It’s a good time to shine a light on umbrageous if understandably imminent undulations in the landscape we love – time to bring systemd to the centre of Ubuntu, time to untwist ourselves from Python 2.x and time to walk a little uphill and, thereby, upstream. Time to purge the ugsome and prune the unusable. We’ve all got our ucky code, and now’s a good time to stand united in favour of the useful over the uncolike and the utile over the uncous. It’s not a time to become unhinged or ultrafidian, just a time for careful review and consideration of business as usual.
So bring your upstanding best to the table – or the forum – or the mailing list – and let’s make something amazing. Something unified and upright, something about which we can be universally proud. And since we’re getting that once-every-two-years chance to make fresh starts and dream unconstrained dreams about what the future should look like, we may as well go all out and give it a dreamlike name. Let’s get going on the utopic unicorn. Give it stick. See you at vUDS.
Every detail matters, and building great software means taking time to remove the papercuts. Ubuntu has over the past 5 years been refined in many ways to feel amazingly comfortable on the cloud. In the very early days of EC2 growth the Ubuntu team recognised how many developers were enjoying fast access to infrastructure on demand, and we set about polishing up Ubuntu to be amazing on the cloud.
This was a big program of work; the Linux experience had many bad assumptions baked in – everything had been designed to be installed once on a server then left largely untouched for as long as possible, but cloud infrastructure was much more dynamic than that.
We encouraged our team to use the cloud as much as possible, which made the work practical and motivated people to get it right themselves. If you want to catch all the little scratchy bits, make it part of your everyday workflow. Today, we have added OpenStack clouds to the mix, as well as the major public clouds. Cloud vendors have taken diverse approaches to IAAS so we find ourselves encouraging developers to use all of them to get a holistic view, and also to address any cloud-specific issues that arise. But the key point is – if it’s great for us, that’s a good start on making it great for everybody.
Then we set about interviewing cloud users and engaging people who were deep into cloud infrastructure to advise on what they needed. We spent a lot of time immersing ourselves in the IAAS experience through the eyes of cloud users – startups and industrial titans, universities and mid-sized, everyday companies. We engaged the largest and fastest-moving cloud users like Netflix, who have said they enjoy Ubuntu as a platform on the cloud. And that in turn drove our prioritisation of paper-cuts and significant new features for cloud users.
We also looked at the places people actually spend time developing. Lots of them are on Ubuntu desktops, but Windows and MacOS are popular too, and it takes some care to make it very easy for folks there to have a great devops experience.
All of this is an industrial version of the user experience design process that also powers our work on desktop, tablet and phone – system interfaces and applications. Devops, sysadmins, developers and their managers are humans too, so human-centric design principles are just as important on the infrastructure as they are on consumer electronics and consumer software. Feeling great at the command line, being productive as an operator and a developer, are vital to our community and our ecosystem. We keep all the potency of Linux with the polish of a refined, designed environment.
Along the way we invented and designed a whole raft of key new pieces of Ubuntu. I’ll write about one of them, cloud-init, next. The net effect of that work makes Ubuntu really useful on every cloud. That’s why the majority of developers using IAAS do so on Ubuntu.
Check out “loving the bottom edge” for the most important bit of design guidance for your Ubuntu mobile app.
This work has been a LOT of fun. It started when we were trying to find the zen of each edge of the screen, a long time back. We quickly figured out that the bottom edge is by far the most fun, by far the most accessible. You can always get to it easily, it feels great. I suspect that’s why Apple has used the bottom edge for their quick control access on IOS.
We started in the same place as Apple, thinking that the bottom edge was so nice we wanted it for ourselves, in the system. But as we discussed it, we started to think that the app developer was the one who deserved to do something really distinctive in their app with it instead. It’s always tempting to grab the tastiest bit for oneself, but the mark of civility is restraint in the use of power and this felt like an appropriate time to exercise that restraint.
Importantly you can use it equally well if we split the screen into left and right stages. That made it a really important edge for us because it meant it could be used equally well on the Ubuntu phone, with a single app visible on the screen, and on the Ubuntu tablet, where we have the side stage as a uniquely cool way to put phone apps on tablet screens alongside a bigger, tablet app.
The net result is that you, the developer, and you, the user, have complete creative freedom with that bottom edge. There are of course ways to judge how well you’ve exercised that freedom, and the design guidance tries to leave you all the freedom in the world while still providing a framework for evaluating how good the result will feel to your users. If you want, there are some archetypes and patterns to choose from, but what I’d really like to see is NEW patterns and archetypes coming from diverse designs in the app developer community.
Here’s the key thing – that bottom edge is the one thing you are guaranteed to want to do more innovatively on Ubuntu than on any other mobile platform. So if you are creating a portable app, targeting a few different environments, that’s the thing to take extra time over for your Ubuntu version. That’s the place to brainstorm, try out ideas on your friends, make a few mockups. It’s the place you really express the single most important aspects of your application, because it’s the fastest, grooviest gesture in the book, and it’s all yours on Ubuntu.
OpenStack has emerged as the consensus forum for open source private cloud software. That of course makes it a big and complex community, with complex governance and arguably even more complex politics, but it has survived several rounds of competition and is now settling down as THE place to get diverse vendors to work together on a IAAS that anybody can deploy for themselves. It is a big enough forum with sufficient independent leadership that no one vendor will ever control it (despite some fantastically impressive efforts to do so!). In short, OpenStack is what you want if you are trying to figure out how to build yourself a cloud.
And by quite a large majority, most of the people who have actually chosen to deploy OpenStack in production, have done so on Ubuntu.
At the latest OpenStack summit, an official survey of production OpenStack deployments found 55% of them on Ubuntu, a stark contrast with the 10% of OpenStack deployments on RHEL.
Canonical and Ubuntu play an interesting role in OpenStack. We do not seek to control any particular part of the project, although some of our competitors clearly think that would be useful for them to achieve, we think OpenStack would be greatly diminished in importance if it was perceived to be controlled by a single vendor, and we think there are enough contributors and experts around the table to ensure that the end result cannot actually be controlled by a single party. To a certain extent, the battle for notional control of key aspects of OpenStack just holds the project back; it’s a distraction from the real task at hand, which is to deliver a high quality, high performance open cloud story. So our focus is on supporting the development of OpenStack, supporting the broadest range of vendors who want to offer OpenStack solutions, components and services, and enabling a large ecosystem to accelerate the adoption of OpenStack in their markets.
It’s a point of pride for us that you can get an OpenStack cloud built on Ubuntu from just about every participant in the OpenStack ecosystem – Dell, HP, Mirantis, and many more – we think the healthiest approach is for us to ensure that people have great choices when it comes to their cloud solution.
We were founding members and are platinum sponsors of the OpenStack Foundation. But what’s more important to us, is that most OpenStack development happens on Ubuntu. We take the needs of OpenStack developers very seriously – for 14.04 LTS, our upcoming bi-annual enterprise release, a significant part of our product requirements were driven by the goal of supporting large-scale enterprise deployments of OpenStack with high availability as a baseline. Our partners like HP, who run one of the largest OpenStack public cloud offerings, invest heavily in OpenStack’s CI and test capabilities, ensuring that OpenStack on Ubuntu is of high quality for anybody who chooses the same base platform.
We publish stable, maintained archives of each OpenStack release for the LTS releases of Ubuntu. That means you can ALWAYS deploy the latest version of OpenStack on the current LTS of Ubuntu, and there is a clear upgrade path as new versions of both OpenStack and Ubuntu are released. And the fact that the OpenStack release cadence and the Ubuntu release cadence are perfectly aligned is no accident – it ensures that the OpenStack developers can always deliver their latest code straight to a very large audience of developers and operators. That’s important because of the extraordinary pace of innovation inside OpenStack; there are significant and valuable improvements in each six-month release, so customers, even enterprise customers, find themselves wanting a more aggressive upgrade schedule for OpenStack than is normal for them in platform environments. We support that and have committed to continue doing so, though we do expect the urgency of those upgrades to diminish as OpenStack matures over the next three years.
For commercial support of OpenStack, we are happy for industry to engage either with our partners who can provide local talent combined with an escalation path to Canonical for L3 support of the whole solution, or directly with Canonical if the circumstances warrant it. That means building on Ubuntu opens up a wide range of solution providers who can make the same high commitment to SLAs and upgrades.
For Canonical itself, our focus is on scale and quality. Our direct customers run the very largest production deployments of OpenStack, both private and public, and we enjoy collaborating with their architects to push the limits of the stack as it stands today. That gives us a lot of insight into the approaches being taken by a wide range of architects in telco, finance and media. We ourselves invest very heavily in testing, continuous integration, and interoperability, with the largest OpenStack interop program (OIL) that gives us the ability to speak with confidence about what combinations of vendor offerings will actually work, and in many cases, how they will perform together for different applications.
The fact that the traditional enterprise Linux vendors have now joined OpenStack is a tremendous validation of the role that OpenStack has assumed in industry: THE open cloud forum. But for all the reasons outlined above, most of the actual production deployments of OpenStack are not on traditional, legacy enterprise Linux. This mirrors the public cloud, where even the largest and most mission-critical deployments tend not to be on proprietary Linux offerings; the economics of HA single-node solutions just don’t apply in a scale-out environment. So just as Ubuntu is by far the most widely used platform for public cloud guests, it is also on track to be the enterprise choice for scale-out infrastructure like IAAS, storage, and big data. Even if you have always done Linux a particular way, the transition to scale-out thinking is an opportunity to reset expectations about your base OS; and for the fastest-moving players in telco, media and finance, Ubuntu turns out to be a great way to get more done, more efficiently.
In a series of 12 posts, I’ll make the case for Ubuntu as the platform of choice for public clouds, enterprise clouds and related scale-out initiatives.
Cloud computing is largely being defined on public clouds today. There are a range of initiatives for private cloud computing – some proprietary, some open – but for sheer scale and traction, the game today is all about public cloud services. Azure, AWS, a range of offerings from telco’s and service providers together with innovative takes on the concept from hardware OEMs have been the leading edge of the cloud market for the past five years. We do expect private clouds to flourish around OpenStack, but we expect the gene pool of innovation to stay on the public clouds for some time.
And what do people run on public clouds? By substantial majority, most of that innovation, most of that practical experience and most of the insights being generated are on Ubuntu.
Digital Ocean, the fastest growing new challenger in the US public cloud market, published definitive statistics on the share of operating systems that customers choose on their cloud:
AWS hasn’t spoken publicly on the topic but there are a number of measurements by third parties that provide some insight. For example, SCALR offer a management service that is used by enterprises looking for more institutional management control of the way their teams use Amazon. One might think that an enterprise management perspective would be skewed away from Ubuntu towards traditional, legacy enterprise Linux, but in fact they find that Ubuntu is more than 70% of all the images they see, three times as popular as CentOS.
There is no true safety in numbers, but there is certainly reassurance. Using a platform that is being used by most other people means that the majority of the content you find about how to get things done efficiently is immediately relevant to you. Version skew – subtle differences in the versions of components that are available by default on your platform of choice – is much less of an issue if the guidebook you are reading assumes you’re on the same platform they used.
There is also the question of talent – finding people to get amazing things done on the cloud is a lot easier if you let them use the platforms they have already grown comfortable with. They can be more productive, and there are many more of them around to hire. Talking to companies about cloud computing today it’s clear their biggest constraint is knowledge acquisition; the time it takes to grow own internal skills or to hire in the necessary skills to get the job done. Building on Ubuntu gives you a much broader talent and knowledge base to work with. Training your own team to use Ubuntu if they are familiar with another Linux is a relatively minor switch compared to the fundamental challenge of adopting a IAAS-based architecture. Switching to Ubuntu is the fastest way to tame that dragon, and the economics are great, too.
That’s why we see many companies that have been doing Linux one way for a decade switching to Ubuntu when they switch to the cloud. Even if what they are doing on the cloud is essentially the same as something they already do on another platform, it’s “easier with Ubuntu on the cloud”, so they switch.
With Bdale Garbee’s casting vote this week, the Debian technical committee finally settled the question of init for both Debian and Ubuntu in favour of systemd.
I’d like to thank the committee for their thoughtful debate under pressure in the fishbowl; it set a high bar for analysis and experience-driven decision making since most members of the committee clearly took time to familiarise themselves with both options. I know the many people who work on Upstart appreciated the high praise for its code quality, rigorous testing and clarity of purpose expressed even by members who voted against it; from my perspective, it has been a pleasure to support the efforts of people who want to create truly great free software, and do it properly. Upstart has served Ubuntu extremely well – it gave us a great competitive advantage at a time when things became very dynamic in the kernel, it’s been very stable (it is after all the init used in both Ubuntu and RHEL 6 😉 and has set a high standard for Canonical-lead software quality of which I am proud.
Nevertheless, the decision is for systemd, and given that Ubuntu is quite centrally a member of the Debian family, that’s a decision we support. I will ask members of the Ubuntu community to help to implement this decision efficiently, bringing systemd into both Debian and Ubuntu safely and expeditiously. It will no doubt take time to achieve the stability and coverage that we enjoy today and in 14.04 LTS with Upstart, but I will ask the Ubuntu tech board (many of whom do not work for Canonical) to review the position and map out appropriate transition plans. We’ll certainly complete work to make the new logind work without systemd as pid 1. I expect they will want to bring systemd into Ubuntu as an option for developers as soon as it is reliably available in Debian, and as our default as soon as it offers a credible quality of service to match the existing init.
Technologies of choice evolve, and our platform evolves both to lead (today our focus is on the cloud and on mobile, and we are quite clearly leading GNU/Linux on both fronts) and to embrace change imposed elsewhere. Init is contentious because it is required for both developers and system administrators to understand its quirks and capabilities. No wonder this was a difficult debate, the consequences for hundreds of thousands of people are very high. From my perspective the fact that good people were clearly split suggests that either option would work perfectly well. I trust the new stewards of pid 1 will take that responsibility as seriously as the Upstart team has done, and be as pleasant to work with. And… onward.
As prep for the upcoming 14.04 LTS release of Ubuntu I spent some quality time with each of the main flavours that I track – Kubuntu, Ubuntu GNOME, Xubuntu, and Ubuntu with the default DE, Unity.
They are all in really great shape! Thanks and congratulations to the teams that are racing to deliver Trusty versions of their favourite DE’s. I get the impression that all the major environments are settling down from periods of rapid change and stress, and the timing for an LTS release in 14.04 is perfect. Lucky us 🙂
The experience reminded me of something people say about Ubuntu all the time – that it’s a place where great people bring diverse but equally important interests together, and a place where people create options for others of which they are proud. You want options? This is the place to get them. You want to collaborate with amazing people? This is the place to find them. I’m very grateful to the people who create those options – for all of them it’s as much a labour of love as a professional concern, and their attention to detail is what makes the whole thing sing.
Of course, my testing was relatively lightweight. I saw tons of major improvements in shared apps like LibreOffice and Firefox and Chromium, and each of the desktop environments feels true to its values, diverse as those are. What I bet those teams would appreciate is all of you taking 14.04 for a spin yourselves. It’s stable enough for any of us who use Linux heavily as an engineering environment, and of course you can use a live boot image off USB if you just want to test drive the future. Cloud images are also available for server testing on all the major clouds.
Having the whole team, and broader community, focus on processes that support faster development at higher quality has really paid off. I’ve upgraded all my systems to Trusty and those I support from afar, too, without any issues. While that’s mere anecdata, the team has far more real data to support a rigorous assessment of 14.04’s quality than any other open platform on the planet, and it’s that rigour that we can all celebrate as the release date approached. There’s still time for tweaks and polish; if you are going to be counting on Trusty, give it a spin and let’s make sure it’s perfect.